kazu4000のブログ / 読書日記

語学系、歴史関係とフェチな本が好きです。
本は図書館から借りてます。常に何か読んでいる活字中毒です。

書籍:「これで読めるエコノミストの英語―読んで楽しいキーワード付き」

10年以上前に買った本です。雑誌「The Economist」の英語を読むための本ですが、記事に対して和訳と単語の意味を載せているだけで、読み方のコツや文法の解説はありません。教科書のイメージです。この本で、すぐに「The Economist」が読めるようにはならないです。「The Economist」を読み込むためには英語力アップの前に、日本語でいいので経済関係の書物、新聞、海外の歴史、文化関係の書籍などを大量に読んで知識を高めることが早道だと思います。そうすると少々英単語が分からなくても何が書いてあるかが分かるようになります。但し、エコノミストを読むとき常に頭に入れておくべきことは英国人記者が書いた記事なので、英文はイギリス英語特有の単語、言い回しはもちろんですが、英文記事のニュアンス、皮肉は英国人からみた世界感です。英国人が米国や日本、その他の国に対する考え方、気持ちへです。TIME,NEWSWEEKのようアメリカ人記者が自国や他国に対する世界感とは違います。また、この本においては明確に1つの単語で表すことのできる表現でも2、3語を使った回りくどい表現を使った記事を載せています。
高尚な記事なゆえにタイトルに使われている単語と記事の中になる単語の韻を踏んでいるのが多いです。記事を読んだ後、タイトルをもう一度じっくり読み直してその発見を楽しむことができます。



他の参考書などで載っている時事英語の単語関係をまとめてみますと下記の約300語がTIME,NEWWEEKなどの雑誌で政治・経済・事件でよく出てくる単語のようです。


accomplice retreat loose replace
appeal shelling monetary reputation
attorney strategy monopoly resign
bail stronghold outlook revise
investigate surrender owe riot
confession tactics pension secretary
conviction target per capita senator
cover-up troops profit statement
defendant truce quota status quo
evidence veteran rationing tumult
guilty volunteer reserves unrest
innocent warhead resources upheaval
jury asylum restraint veto
justice coup revenue welfare
motive exile sacrifices xenophobia
murder caution share
oath chaos slash
out-of-court settlement civilian sluggish
paintiff distribute solvency
proof escalate sovereignty
prosecutor estimate speculation
punishment ethnic spiral
sentence extinguish statistics
suit hostile stock
summon identify subsidy
suspect infect suspend
testify intelligence tariff
trial intervene Treasury
tribunal isolate turnover
verdict mass unemployment
blackmail miserable volatile
bribery perish wage
extortion rampant ballot
fraud reconcile majority
illegal refugee margin
kidnap release mudslinging
looting resuce polls
manslaugher resident tunout
massacre restore vote
perjury rubble accord
robbery security discord
smuggling shelter dissent
theft showdown unanimous
wrongdoing subside address
accuse survivor administration
charge territory advocate
condemn threaten agenda
impeach tolerant amend
indict unilateral apologize
aftermath vaccine appoint
allegation victim authority
allededly violate bill
arrest withdraw bipartisan
assault withness bureaucracy
conflict warm breifing
counterfeit wreck cabinet
detect alternative candidate
dispute deregulation circumstances
ransom regulation coalition
revenge retail Congress
strangle wholesale constitution
sue ascend controversial
suicide skyrocket conuterpart
thorough soar critical
warrant increase deceive
body decrease deputy
casualty plummet Diet
corpse plunge dissolve
death toil reduce eliminate
blaze descend emphasize
blast devaluation extreme
demolish suplus flexible
destory defict grant
ruin assets grasp
disaster bond imply
drought braker incumbent
epidemic budget indicate
famine commodity insult
flood credit issue
nightmare crunch lawmaker
outbreak debt legialate
starvation effcient legislature
plight emerging market moderate
quake enterprise obligation
tragedy excess official
aggression exchange opposition party
ammunition financial Parliament
atrocities fiscal pledge
cease-fire fluctuate poverty
hostage fundemantals precedent
infantry interest prejudice
invasion deposit pressing
landmine inevst quote
nuclear liabilities radical
paramilitary liquidity rebel




「The Economist」は内容が高いですが、一般的な新聞やニュースで流れる英語についての基本的なポイントは下記の通りです。


Part1 見出しの読み方


1) be動詞の省略
42 dissidents (are) said (to have been) released


2) 動詞現在形の使用
Paul explains Beatles breakup
Retail prices remain stabilized


3) 未来を表す不定詞
U.S. Marines to stay in Okinawa
Defense spending to be boosted


4) 動詞の進行形
U.S. seeking Japan’s help


5) 冠詞の省略
(The)U.N. put pressure on (the) Myanmar Junta


6) コンマ・セミコロンの用法
Syrian, Egyptian officials meet
Matsui homers ; Clemens wins


7) コロン・引用符の用法
Asylum seeker can leave : China


8) 短い単語の多用
Slight quakes felt on Oshima isle


9) 略語・記号の使用
Japan-EU talks slated for Feb.


10) 単語の短縮
200 killed in S. African mine disaster


11) 見出しの常用語
abduct / back / call / dip / end / gain …..



Part2 ニュース英語特有の表現


1) 主語の選択
A pre-dawn fire destroyed a restaurant…….


2) 動詞の役割
The returning space shuttle burned up as it re-entered the atmosphere, killing all of its crew.


3) 能動態の用法
A record number of delegates attended the conference, the organizers said.


4) 受動態の用法(断定を避けたり、客観性を持たせたり、詳細を後にまわす)
Some casualties were reported to have resulted from fresh……


5) 進行形の用法
The Russian president is now planning as head of the Environmental…..


6) 時制の一致と不一致
The minister said the government is carefully considering the……


7) ハイフンの活用
The Italian billionaire-turned-politician made his debut as…..


8) 倒置法の活用
Among the hardest hit were the northern mountainous areas, where more than 50 people reportedly perished in the severe quake.


9) 無生物主語
Their joint announcement said the two opposition parties had agreed to merge two months later in order to …..


10) 無生物所有格
Pyongyang’s latest statement indicated that North Korea now…….


11) 接続詞の省略 thatの省略
A high-ranking North Korean defector said in Washington (that) more than 90….


12) 補語としての活用 thatの省略
Indications are (that) the prime minister seeking…..


13) 動名詞の活用
The company employee denied stealing the money from…


14) 複合動詞の用法
Hundreds of protesters snake-danced their way through the….


15) 品詞の転換(動詞+副詞➡名詞、名詞➡動詞、形容詞➡名詞、名詞➡形容詞)
The buildup of the nation’s defense setup has been…..
Among the dead was a 16-year-old…
The country’s currency was at a new low at the close
in the wake of the opposition’s surprise move.


16) 分離不定詞(不定詞のtoと原形動詞の間に副詞が入る。これは意味の取り間違えを招かないようにするため。)
The ailing company decided to further reduce the number of ……
Leading economists say they want to closely watch developments….
The company is expected to tentatively select the…..


17) 関係代名詞の省略
The management made some concessions (that) the union said were …


18) 同格の活用(コンマ使用)
Katherine Hepburn, an American movie idol who died at the age of 96, left her beachfront home and ….


19) 目的語・同格としての節(ニュース内容を真っ先に述べるために節を前に出すことが多い)
The government is preparing to urge Russia again to consider returning to Japan the Northern Territory islands off Hokkaido, informed sources said.


A giant computer system in a Japanese research institute has been infiltrated by a group of foreign hackers, it was revealed on Tuesday.(itは前の節と同格)


20) 副詞の使い方(表現を理解しやすいように動詞の前に置かれることが多い)
The woman repeatedly denied her involvement in the scandal.
The union leaders flatly rejected the..


21) 接頭語・接尾語の活用
The stock market soared in post-holiday trading on ….


22) 結果を表す不定詞の活用(文を引き締めるために用いられる)
Anti-whaling nations did a well-orchestrated PR campaign to result in getting their resolution adopted at the IWC conference.


23) 予定・見込みを表す不定詞(to beが頻繁に用いられる)
The prime minister is to go to Beijing next month for talks with …..


24) 特定不定詞の省略 to beの省略(文中でも省略されることが多い)
The fishing boat is feared (to be) lost in the…


25) 略語の多用
Gov. Ishihara proposed a drastic spending cut ….


26) 冠詞の省略、特殊用法(冠詞は省略されることが多い)
Fire broke out in a bookstore in…


*数詞のついた複数名詞の前に形容詞や分詞がつく場合、不定冠詞がその前に使われる。
Stock prices soared and an estimated 250 million shares changed hands…


27) 情報源に用いる複数形(情報源が1人であっても複数形)
…….. company officials said.


28) 引用符の用法
Two weeks after the “Black Monday” market …


29) アラビア文字(1から9までは綴り、それ以上はアラビア文字)
At least 11 people were killed and ….


30) 政府・国を表す首都名
The Tokyo-London agreement is a result of ….


31) 官公庁を示す地名・建物名
The Pentagon is reportedly anxious to …..


32) 外来語の使用
The high-ranking U.S. official stopped over in London en route to….
The diplomat was ordered leave the country as persona non grata.


33) 仮定法の用法
The U.S negotiator demanded that the European Union lift its tough…


34) 形容詞の最上級
The government has promised to earmark the highest-possible amount of spending….


35) ダッシュの活用
Japan’s three major passenger car exporters – Toyota, Nissan and Honda – are ..


36) 分詞構文の活用
Conditions permitting, the U.S. president is expected ….


37) 現在完了の利用
Israel has released hundreds of Palestinian prisoners in …..


38) コロンの用法(要点など列挙する文や引用文の前に)
The statement made these points: - Trade relations should be….


39) 大文字の使用法(固有名詞の最初は大文字だが説明的な表記を
した後はこの限りではない)
Trading was massive on the Tokyo Stock Exchange. The stock exchange reached …


40) 予定稿に使う現在形(締め切りに間に合わない場合)
The prime minister tells the Diet today that …


41) 略語・数字の複数形(本来、’sですが、sだけで表すのが多い)
The computer industry is now short of supplied of LSIs.
The seminar was held to discuss the prospects of the national economy in the 2010s.


42) 特殊な間接目的語(会議や記者会見を動詞の間接目的語とすることが多い)
The prime minister told a press conference that he hoped to visit Beijing for talks..


43) 特殊な形容詞
The party officials was asked to elaborate on his controversial way of …


44) 前置詞化している現在分詞
Discussions continued through Sunday on problems concerning the….


45) 情報源保護のための語句
A ranking official, who spoke on condition that his name be withheld,


46) 客観性を守るための語句
The executive has resigned apparently to take responsibility for ….
The assemblyman was alleged to have received….


47) プライバシー配慮のための語句
The South Pacific nation’s leader was hospitalized Tuesday due to what conference sources said was believed to be …….


48) 未確認情報を扱うための語句
According to unconfirmed reports, a number of people were killed …


49) 助動詞would notの活用(発言拒絶の意思を伝えるため否定語とともにwouldが用いられる)
Investigators would not disclose the name……
None of the conferees would comment on whether an ….


50) 語句の言い換え
The U.S. dollar closed at \119.90 in New York on Friday, up from \119.75 on Thursday. The American currency was also …


51) 写真説明で用いる現在形
The ace Japanese swimmer waves to a crowd at the airport ….


52) 記事を訂正するために表現(後日訂正のため仮定法)
The Tokyo governor’s name should have read Ishihara in the…..



Part3 ニュース英語の決まり文句


1) よく使われる表現
The opposition proposed that a drastic tax …
The minister remained noncommittal about …
The Union pressed for a pay…


2) 受動態表現(目的:状況を正確、詳細に記述するため)
The party leader is suspected to have…
The surgery is expected to last about …
The motor show is scheduled to run for …


3) 進行形表現(目的:臨場感を出すため)
The company is considering promoting a ….
A round-the-clock search is going on for…


4) 前置詞句(目的:文章を簡素にかくため)
Thousands of people demonstrated in protest against the…
The emergency meeting was held against the background of wide spread..


5) 情報源に関する表現(目的:情報源について何かの表現が必要なため)
…… , according to informed sources.
………. according to a police source who declined to be named.
….. according to reports reaching here.
The prime minister was quoted as saying……


6) つなぎの表現(目的:文章の流れを滑らかにするため)
In the meantime, / In a related development, / Earlier in the day,


7) 記録に関する表現
The city’s temperature marked the day’s high of 36 degrees …
The automaker’s RV production registered a double-digit increase during …


8) 未確認に関する表現(記事作成完了までに時間的制約あり情報の確認がとれない場合。)
A violent ethnic riot has flared up in the region, according to unconfirmed reports reaching the capital city.
The incumbent governor of the prefecture headed for victory in Sunday’s election.
Initial results showed that the conservatives would suffer a stunning setback in the election.
The country’s national assembly was expected to approve a new……


9) 注意を必要とする表現
Among those present were A,B,C and D.
Attending the meeting were : A,B,C and D.
His remarks came at a meeting of….
This week has seen a sharp rise in stock prices.
The meeting ended inconclusively.
The Bank of Japan is to raise the official discount rate by 0.25 percent effective today.
The pay raise is retroactive to April.


10) 社説・論説などで用いられる表現
It remains to be seen if the tax revision ….
The fact remains that both countries have …
The question is whether the government will….
The Kyoto District Court’s decision is noteworthy in that it is the first ruling …
It is too early to draw any conclusions about what lay….